The following development models have been identified in Italy to enhance relations among different actors involved in the research sector and to strengthen partnership and cooperation in particular between public and private bodies and among training, research and innovation.
University centres of excellence: public and private actors from different backgrounds operate within these virtual centres of excellence and work on real multi-sectorial projects of complementary nature. University centres for excellence in research were funded for the first time in 2000. Each year professors and researchers of a university centre of excellence submit multidisciplinary projects on topics relating to Research and Development. Centres of excellence have been particularly set up in the following sectors: biotechnologies and biomedicine, novel materials, ICT, environmental studies, logistics, economic and social sciences..
More information: Research Italy website www.researchitaly.it
Technology clusters: these clusters are the results of a joint action undertaken by regional authorities and central government with the support of the Italian Ministry for University and Research. The setting up of a cluster depends on the local availability of universities and authoritative research centres, widespread entrepreneurship and highly qualified human resources. The cluster aims at promoting knowledge connection and transfer based on the economic situation of the regional area.
There are clusters all around Italy. In 2006 the Associazione dei Distretti Tecnologici -ADiTe (Association of Technology Cluster) was set up.
More information Technology Cluster Observatory website and to the Association of Technology Clusters website
Science and Technology Parks: in Italy they were set up in the ‘90s thanks to funds allocated by the Ministry for University and Research and the EU Structural Funds. The goal of Science and Technology Parks is the enhancement, creation and transfer of scientific and technological knowledge so as to ensure the region’s innovative development in a way that is also economically and socially sustainable. Parks involve different actors, local and national, public and private, businesses and research institutions. Most parks have joined the Associazione Parchi Scientifici e Tecnologici Italiani (APSTI) (Association of Italian Science and Technology Parks) which has 31 members representing almost all the Italian regions that promote economic development through innovation.
Similarly, parks all over the world are members of the International Association of Science Parks (IASP).
More information APSTI website IASP website