In Italy there are various forms of work relationships. In this section you will be given information about the most common types of employment contracts and fellowships for researchers. In addition you can find also information about job seeking in Italy.
TYPES OF RESEARCH CONTRACT
In general, a researcher might be offered one of the following work contract, according to his/her career stage (early stage; experienced; etc.):
- Employment contract (subordinato)
- "Parasubordinate" contract (parasubordinato)
- Fellowships/Grant for research training (borsa di addestramento alla ricerca)
The contracts differ from each other depending on their duration, level of taxation and of social security benefits.
1. The employment contracts (fixed term or permanent) (subordinato - contratto di lavoro a tempo determinato o indeterminato) mostly used for researchers are those of the university sector, of public research institutions (some large institutions may have their own specific contracts, for example ENEA) and those of the medical and chemical sectors.
The careers of university professors in Italy are regulated by Law DPR 382/80 and by Law 230/2005 which specify the number of hours that must be dedicated to teaching activities.
These contracts are subject to IRPEF and IRAP taxes. Enrolment in the Italian social security system as well as in the Italian Workers Compensation Authority (INAIL) is provided.
2. The "parasubordinate" employment relationship (parasubordinato) includes three types of contracts:
• Contratto di collaborazione coordinata e continuitiva, the so called Co.Co.Co., which at the present is only allowed in public bodies;
• Contratto di collaborazione a progetto, the so called Co.Co.Pro., a type of contract which since 24 October 2005 all private organisations have been obliged to use instead of the Co.Co.Co.;
• Prestazioni occasionali (occasional work) can only be used for assignments of less than 30 days and a total yearly remuneration of less than 5,000 Euro.
Enrolment in the Italian social security system as well as in the Italian Workers Compensation Authority (INAIL) is provided.
3. A specific kind of grant for research training (borsa di addestramento alla ricerca) is the assegno di ricerca. It is regulated by Law 449/97 which envisages to carry out a specific research project. The maximum fixed term is four years. The remuneration is exempt from IRPEF tax - Imposta sui redditi delle persone fisiche (Personal Income Tax) and IRAP. Enrolment in the Italian social security system is provided.
Please be aware that within universities and research centres the most used type of contracts are the above mentioned Co.Co.Co and assegno di ricerca.
In the framework of specific programmes or agreements supported by regional authorities, a special type of training contract, the "high level apprenticeship contract" (contratto di alto apprendistato), may be used; this type of contract is generally addressed to young people (max 29 years old) working in enterprises and wishing to gain advanced university degrees (including PhD).
For general information about the taxes and the social security system in Italy, visit the dedicated section: Taxation and Social Security.
FIND A JOB IN ITALY
If you are looking for a research job there are several resources that might be useful to you. The majority of these are available on the internet and allow you to search for jobs, post your CV (curriculum vitae) and access support and advice about vacancies and careers.
The best place to start is the EURAXESS national portal! Visit the EURAXESS Job Italy section!
You can query the data base by selecting the research field of interest or Marie Curie fellowships.
Otherwise, if you decide to change your career, or would like to find a job for your partner, you could use one of the many general job resources available. In general in Italy, job offers can be found:
• in national, regional or local newspapers;
• via the Internet (there are several web resources which advertise job offers with a searchable database: i.e. http://www.monster.it/ (available only in Italian), http://www.jobonline.it/lavoro/ , http://www.careerjet.it/ or http://www.infojobs.it/ );
• by visiting a Job Centres (Centri per l'impiego) for local job vacancies;
• by contacting Temporary Employment Agencies (Agenzie interinali), Youth Information Centres (Informagiovani).
For further information:
- http://www.cliclavoro.gov.it/Operatori/Centro-impiego/Pagine/default.aspx : a network of local public employment offices - Centri per l'impiego
- http://www.cliclavoro.gov.it/Operatori/Albo-informatico/Pagine/default.aspx : list of temporary employment agencies in Italy - Agenzie interinali
- http://www.informagiovani-italia.com/ : the Italian network of youth information centres - Informagiovani
- http://ec.europa.eu/eures/: The European Job Mobility Portal-EURES